A Firearms Transaction Record (or Form 4473) is a Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) form that is completed by anyone purchasing a firearm from a Federal Firearms License (FFL) holder (such as a gun shop). Some states require the form to be completed for all firearms purchases (even private purchases). A background check is processed based on the information on the form by the FBI via the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS).
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